Lumelsky, Vladimir J.; Shur, Michael S.; Wagner, Sigurd
Abstract: Sensitive skin is a large-area, flexible array of sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the entire surface of a machine or even a part of a human body. Depending on the skin electronics, it endows its carrier with an ability to sense its surroundings via the skin’s proximity, touch, pressure, temperature, chemical/biological, or other sensors. Sensitive skin devices will make possible the use of unsupervised machines operating in unstructured, unpredictable surroundings—among people, among many obstacles, outdoors on a crowded street, undersea, or on faraway planets. Sensitive skin will make machines “cautious” and thus friendly to their environment. This will allow us to build machine helpers for the disabled and elderly, bring sensing to human prosthetics, and widen the scale of machines’ use in service industry. With their ability to produce and process massive data flow, sensitive skin devices will make yet another advance in the information revolution. This paper surveys the state of the art and research issues that need to be resolved in order to make sensitive skin a reality. The paper is partially based on the report of the Sensitive Skin Workshop conducted jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in October 1999 in Arlington, VA, of which the three co-authors were the co-chairs.
A Wireless, Passive Carbon Nanotube-Based Gas Sensor
Ong, Keat Ghee; Zeng, Kefeng; Grimes, Craig A.
Abstract: A gas sensor, comprised of a gas-responsive multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)—silicon dioxide (SiO2) composite layer deposited on a planar inductor-capacitor resonant circuit is presented here for the monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and ammonia (NH3). The absorption of different gases in the MWNT-SiO2 layer changes the permittivity and conductivity of the material and consequently alters the resonant frequency of the sensor. By tracking the frequency spectrum of the sensor with a loop antenna, humidity, temperature, as well as CO2, O2 and NH3 concentrations can be determined, enabling applications such as remotely monitoring conditions inside opaque, sealed containers. Experimental results show the sensor response to CO2 and O2 is both linear and reversible. Both irreversible and reversible responses are observed in response to NH3, indicating both physisorption and chemisorption of NH3 by the carbon nanotubes. A sensor array, comprised of an uncoated, SiO2 coated, and MWNT-SiO2 coated sensor, enables CO2 measurement to be automatically calibrated for operation in a variable humidity and temperature environment.
Pattern Analysis for Machine Olfaction: A Review
Abstract: Pattern analysis constitutes a critical building block in the development of gas sensor array instruments capable of detecting, identifying, and measuring volatile compounds, a technology that has been proposed as an artificial substitute for the human olfactory system. The successful design of a pattern analysis system for machine olfaction requires a careful consideration of the various issues involved in processing multivariate data: signal-preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, classification, regression, clustering, and validation. A considerable number of methods from statistical pattern recognition, neural networks, chemometrics, machine learning, and biological cybernetics have been used to process electronic nose data. The objective of this review paper is to provide a summary and guidelines for using the most widely used pattern analysis techniques, as well as to identify research directions that are at the frontier of sensor-based machine olfaction.
Multisensor Fusion and Integration: Approaches, Applications, and Future Research Directions
Luo, Ren C.; Yih, Chih-Chen; Su, Kuo Lan
Abstract: Multisensor fusion and integration is a rapidly evolving research area and requires interdisciplinary knowledge in control theory, signal processing, artificial intelligence, probability and statistics, etc. The advantages gained through the use of redundant, complementary, or more timely information in a system can provide more reliable and accurate information. This paper provides an overview of current sensor technologies and describes the paradigm of multisensor fusion and integration as well as fusion techniques at different fusion levels. Applications of multisensor fusion in robotics, biomedical system, equipment monitoring, remote sensing, and transportation system are also discussed. Finally, future research directions of multisensor fusion technology including microsensors, smart sensors, and adaptive fusion techniques are presented.
Distributed Odor Source Localization
Hayes, Adam T.; Martinoli, Alcherio; Goodman, Rodney M.
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of odor localization by groups of autonomous mobile robots. First, we describe a distributed algorithm by which groups of agents can solve the full odor localization task. Next, we establish that conducting polymer-based odor sensors possess the combination of speed and sensitivity necessary to enable real world odor plume tracing and we demonstrate that simple local position, odor, and flow information, tightly coupled with robot behavior, is sufficient to allow a robot to localize the source of an odor plume. Finally, we show that elementary communication among a group of agents can increase the efficiency of the odor localization system performance.
Inertial Sensor Technology Trends
Barbour, Neil; Schmidt, George
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of how inertial sensor technology is applied in current applications and how it is expected to be applied in near- and far-term applications. The ongoing trends in inertial sensor technology development are discussed, namely interferometric fiber-optic gyros, micro-mechanical gyros and accelerometers, and micro-optical sensors. Micromechanical sensors and improved fiber-optic gyros are expected to replace many of the current systems using ring laser gyroscopes or mechanical sensors. The successful introduction of the new technologies is primarily driven by cost and cost projections for systems using these new technologies are presented. Externally aiding the inertial navigation system (INS) with the global positioning system (GPS) has opened up the ability to navigate a wide variety of new large-volume applications, such as guided artillery shells. These new applications are driving the need for extremely low-cost, batch-producible sensors.
Magnetic sensors and their applications
Lenz, James; Edelstein, Alan S.
Abstract: Magnetic sensors can be classified according to whether they measure the total magnetic field or the vector components of the magnetic field. The techniques used to produce both types of magnetic sensors encompass many aspects of physics and electronics. Here, we describe and compare most of the common technologies used for magnetic field sensing. These include search coil, fluxgate, optically pumped, nuclear precession, SQUID, Hall-effect, anisotropic magnetoresistance, giant magnetoresistance, magnetic tunnel junctions, giant magnetoimpedance, magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites, magnetodiode, magnetotransistor, fiber optic, magnetooptic, and microelectromechanical systems-based magnetic sensors. The usage of these sensors in relation to working with or around Earth’s magnetic field is also presented.
A tactile sensor sheet using pressure conductive rubber with electrical-wires stitched method
Shimojo, M; Namiki, A; Ishikawa, M; Makino, R.; Mabuchi, K.
Abstract: A new type of tactile sensor using pressure-conductive rubber with stitched electrical wires is presented. The sensor is thin and flexible and can cover three-dimensional objects. Since the sensor adopts a single-layer composite structure, the sensor is durable with respect to external force. In order to verify the effectiveness of this tactile sensor, we performed an experiment in which a four-fingered robot hand equipped with tactile sensors grasped sphere and column. The sensor structure, electrical circuit, and characteristics are described. The sensor control system and experimental results are also described.
Silicon Piezoresistive Stress Sensors and Their Application in Electronic Packaging
Suhling, Jeffrey C.; Jaeger, Richard C.
Abstract: Structural reliability of integrated circuit (IC) chips in electronic packages continues to be a major concern due to ever-increasing die size, circuit densities, power dissipation, operating temperatures, and the use of a wide range of low-cost packaging materials. A powerful method for experimental evaluation of silicon die stress distributions is the use of test chips incorporating integral piezoresistive sensors. In this paper, a review is made of the state-of-the-art in the area of silicon piezoresistive stress sensor test chips. Developments in sensor theory, calibration methods, and packaging applications are presented. In the absence of die failure, packaging-induced stresses result in changes in the parametric performance of circuitry on the die, and the theory discussed here can be used to predict such changes.
Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: A comprehensive review
Sharma, Anuj K.; Jha, Rajan; Gupta, B. D.
Abstract: Since the introduction of optical fiber technology in the field of sensor based on the technique of surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fiber-optic SPR sensors have witnessed a lot of advancements. This paper reports on the past, present, and future scope of fiber-optic SPR sensors in the field of sensing of different chemical, physical, and biochemical parameters. A detailed mechanism of the SPR technique for sensing purposes has been discussed. Different new techniques and models in this area that have been introduced are discussed in quite a detail. We have tried to put the different advancements in the order of their chronological evolution. The content of the review article may be of great importance for the research community who are to take the field of fiber-optic SPR sensors as its research endeavors.